The Biochemical Basis of Sickle Cell Disease

Need a research paper on the biochemical basis of sickle cell disease. Needs to be 7 pages. Please no plagiarism. Generally, the signs and symptoms of sickle cell disease usually begin in early childhood, with some of the characteristic features including a low number of red blood cells, repeated infections, and periodic episodes of pain (Jones, 2008).In the body, normal blood cells are donut-shaped and move easily through the blood vessels. Red blood cells contain a rich protein called hemoglobin that is responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Sickle cells are abnormal hemoglobin that occurs as mutation, causing the cells to develop a crescent shape, thus blocking blood flow, and causing pain and damage of organs affected. Distortion of these cells increases the risk of infections in sickle cell anemia patients. A person who is heterozygous for the hemoglobin gene will have fewer sickle-shaped red blood cells and a mild case of sickle cell anemia while a homozygous person for sickle cell is likely to experience a high number of sickle cells and a full-blown case of the disease (Kawthalkar, 2012).Mutation of the HBB gene causes sickle cell. the hemoglobin consists of four proteins two alpha-globin and two beta globins. The HBB gene provides instructions for the making of the beta-globin, which has different versions resulting from multiple mutations. One such gene mutation is the production of abnormal versions of beta-globin known as the HbS. other mutations in the sickle cell anemia include the HbC and HbE. The DNA sequence in sickle cell anemia carriers is the main reason why the disease is mutational. This means that those suffering from the gene mutation of sickle cells are propagated from the presence of these genes (Kawthalkar, 2012).The sickle cell anemia is an inherited and lifelong disease. patients inherit two genes for the sickle hemoglobin, one from each parent. However, there are instances when people inherit a sickle cell hemoglobin gene from one parent and a normal gene from the other parent, leading to a condition called the sickle cell trait. The mutation of the sickle cell trait can only lead to sickle cell anemia in their offspring but those who have the sickle cell trait are not likely to have the disease. When both parents have a normal gene and abnormal gene, their offspring has a 25 percent chance of inheriting the normal gene. however, others have a 50 percent chance of inheriting one normal gene and an abnormal gene while 25 percent have a chance of inheriting the abnormal gene. Sickle cell anemia can be diagnosed before birth. here, doctors use a sample of amniotic tissue as early as 10 weeks into the pregnancy, with the tests aimed at looking for abnormal hemoglobin (Peterson, 2008).

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