Rhetorical Appeals 

Essay 3 Directions DIRECTIONS: In American culture, we are bombarded with plenty of messages and images encouraging us to buy, buy, buy! As consumers, we are persuaded to buy certain items through certain advertising techniques. Your first paragraph should preview your analysis by summarizing ethos, pathos, and logos for the reader. Then, using Janny Scott’s “How They Get You to Do That?” (1) choose two of these marketing tactics. (2) For each tactic, analyze how a specific advertisement from television, a magazine, newspaper, or another form of media demonstrates that marketing tactic and (3) how that advertisement uses ethos, pathos, or logos to appeal to the target audience. REQUIREMENTS  Write 4 full pages minimum. Integrate two sources: Source 1 should be Scott. Source 2 should come from any other reading indicated in the “Approved Sources” in the next slide. Use third person point of view only. Include a Works Cited page that contains your two sources. Refer to the MLA Citations PPT for help. Follow the structure provided in this PPT. Approved Sources for Essay 3 “When Algorithms Don’t Account for Civil Rights” (White) “Does Advertising Ruin Everything?” (Thompson) “Whistling Vivaldi and Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us” (Steele) “The Danger of a Single Story” (Adichie) “Positionality” (Meriam and Bierema) “The Miseducation of the American Boy” (Orenstein) “Little Girls or Little Women? The Disney Princess Effect” (Hanes) Article: “How They Get You to Do That” How They Get You to Do That                                                                          Janny Scott So you think you’re sailing along in life, making decisions based on your own preferences? Not likely! Janny Scott brings together the findings of several researchers to show how advertisers, charitable organizations, politicians, employers, and even your friends get you to say “yes” when you should have said “no”—or, at least, “Let me think about that.” The woman in the supermarket in a white coat tenders a free sample of “lite” cheese. A car salesman suggests that prices won’t stay low for long. Even a penny will help, pleads the door-to-door solicitor. Sale ends Sunday! Will work for food. The average American exists amid a perpetual torrent of propaganda. Every­one, it sometimes seems, is trying to make up someone else’s mind. If it isn’t an athletic shoe company, it’s a politician, a panhandler, a pitchman, a boss, a billboard company, a spouse. The weapons of influence they are wielding are more sophisticated than ever, researchers say. And they are aimed at a vulnerable target—people with less and less time to consider increasingly complex issues. As a result, some experts in the field have begun warning the public, tipping people off to precisely how “the art of compliance” works. Some critics have taken to arguing for new government controls on one pervasive form of persuasion— political advertising. The persuasion problem is “the essential dilemma of modern democracy,” 5 argue social psychologists Anthony Pratkanis and Elliot Aronson, the authors of Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion. As the two psychologists see it, American society values free speech and pub- 6 lie discussion, but people no longer have the time or inclination to pay attention. Mindless propaganda flourishes, they say; thoughtful persuasion fades away. The problem stems from what Pratkanis and Aronson call our “message-dense ? environment.” The average television viewer sees nearly 38,000 commercials a year, they say. “The average home receives . . . [numerous] pieces of junk mail annually and . . . [countless calls] from telemarketing firms.” Bumper stickers, billboards and posters litter the public consciousness. Athletic 8 events and jazz festivals carry corporate labels. As direct selling proliferates, work­ers patrol their offices during lunch breaks, peddling chocolate and Tupperware to friends. Meanwhile, information of other sorts multiplies exponentially. Technology 9 serves up ever-increasing quantities of data on every imaginable subject, from home security to health. With more and more information available, people have less and less time to digest it. “It’s becoming harder and harder to think in a considered way about anything,” said 10 Robert Cialdini, a persuasion researcher at Arizona State University in Tempe. “More and more, we are going to be deciding on the basis of less and less information.” Persuasion is a democratic society’s chosen method for decision making and 11 dispute resolution. But the flood of persuasive messages in recent years has changed the nature of persuasion. Lengthy arguments have been supplanted by slogans and logos. In a world teeming with propaganda, those in the business of influencing others put a premium on effective shortcuts. Most people, psychologists say, are easily seduced by such shortcuts. Humans are 12 “cognitive misers,” always looking to conserve attention and mental energy—leaving themselves at the mercy of anyone who has figured out which shortcuts work. The task of figuring out shortcuts has been embraced by advertising agencies, 13 market researchers, and millions of salespeople. The public, meanwhile, remains in the dark, ignorant of even the simplest principles of social influence. As a result, laypeople underestimate their susceptibility to persuasion, psychologists 14 say. They imagine their actions are dictated simply by personal preferences. Unaware of the techniques being used against them, they are often unwittingly outgunned. As Cialdini tells it, the most powerful tactics work like jujitsu: They draw their 15 strength from deep-seated, unconscious psychological rules. The clever “compli­ance professional” deliberately triggers these “hidden stores of influence” to elicit a predictable response. One such rule, for example, is that people are more likely to comply with a request 16 if a reason—no matter how silly—is given. To prove that point, one researcher tested different ways of asking people in line at a copying machine to let her cut the line. When the researcher asked simply, “Excuse me, I have five pages. May I use 17 the Xerox machine?” only 60 percent of those asked complied. But when she added nothing more than, “because I have to make some copies,” nearly every one agreed. The simple addition of “because” unleashed an automatic response, even 18 though “because” was followed by an irrelevant reason, Cialdini said. By asking the favor in that way, the researcher dramatically increased the likelihood of getting what she wanted. Cialdini and others say much of human behavior is mechanical. Automatic 19 responses are efficient when time and attention are short. For that reason, many techniques of persuasion are designed and tested for their ability to trigger those automatic responses. “These appeals persuade not through the give-and-take of argument and 20 debate,” Pratkanis and Aronson have written. “. . . They often appeal to our deep­est fears and most irrational hopes, while they make use of our most simplistic beliefs.” Life insurance agents use fear to sell policies, Pratkanis and Aronson say. Parents 21 use fear to convince their children to come home on time. Political leaders use fear to build support for going to war—for example, comparing a foreign leader to Adolf Hitler. As many researchers see it, people respond to persuasion in one of two ways: If 22 an issue they care about is involved, they may pay close attention to the arguments; if they don’t care, they pay less attention and are more likely to be influenced by simple cues. Their level of attention depends on motivation and the time available. As David 23 Boninger, a UCLA psychologist, puts it, “If you don’t have the time or motivation, or both, you will pay attention to more peripheral cues, like how nice somebody looks.” Cialdini, a dapper man with a flat Midwestern accent, describes himself as an 24 inveterate sucker. From an early age, he said recently, he had wondered what made him say yes in many cases when the answer, had he thought about it, should have been no. So in the early 1980s, he became “a spy in the wars of influence.” He took 25 a sabbatical and, over a three-year period, enrolled in dozens of sales training programs, learning firsthand the tricks of selling insurance, cars, vacuum cleaners, encyclopedias, and more. He learned how to sell portrait photography over the telephone. He took a 26 job as a busboy in a restaurant, observing the waiters. He worked in fund-raising, advertising, and public relations. And he interviewed cult recruiters and members of bunco squads. By the time it was over, Cialdini had witnessed hundreds of tactics. But he 27 found that the most effective ones were rooted in six principles. Most are not new, but they are being used today with greater sophistication on people whose fast-paced lifestyle has lowered their defenses.  Reciprocity. People have been trained to believe that a favor must be repaid in kind, 28 even if the original favor was not requested. The cultural pressure to return a favor is so intense that people go along rather than suffer the feeling of being indebted. Politicians have learned that favors are repaid with votes. Stores offer free 29 samples—not just to show off a product. Charity organizations ship personalized address labels to potential contributors. Others accost pedestrians, planting paper flowers in their lapels. Commitment and Consistency. People tend to feel they should be consistent— 30 even when being consistent no longer makes sense. While consistency is easy, comfortable, and generally advantageous, Cialdini says, “mindless consistency” can be exploited. Take the “foot in the door technique.” One person gets another to agree to a 31 small commitment, like a down payment or signing a petition. Studies show that it then becomes much easier to get the person to comply with a much larger request. Another example Cialdini cites is the “lowball tactic” in car sales. Offered a 32 low price for a car, the potential customer agrees. Then at the last minute, the sales manager finds a supposed error. The price is increased. But customers tend to go along nevertheless. Social Validation. People often decide what is correct on the basis of what other 33 people think. Studies show that is true for behavior. Hence, sitcom laugh tracks, tip jars “salted” with a bartender’s cash, long lines outside nightclubs, testimonials, and “man on the street” ads. Tapping the power of social validation is especially effective under certain con- 34 ditions: When people are in doubt, they will look to others as a guide; and when they view those others as similar to themselves, they are more likely to follow their lead. Liking. People prefer to comply with requests from people they know and like. 35 Charities recruit people to canvass their friends and neighbors. Colleges get alumni to raise money from classmates. Sales training programs include grooming tips. According to Cialdini, liking can be based on any of a number of factors. 36 Good-looking people tend to be credited with traits like talent and intelligence. People also tend to like people who are similar to themselves in personality, back­ground, and lifestyle. Authority. People defer to authority. Society trains them to do so, and in many situ- 37 ations deference is beneficial. Unfortunately, obedience is often automatic, leaving people vulnerable to exploitation by compliance professionals, Cialdini says. As an example, he cites the famous ad campaign that capitalized on actor 38 Robert Young’s role as Dr. Marcus Welby, Jr., to tout the alleged health benefits of Sanka decaffeinated coffee. An authority, according to Cialdini, need not be a true authority. The trappings 39 of authority may suffice. Con artists have long recognized the persuasive power of titles like doctor or judge, fancy business suits, and expensive cars. Scarcity. Products and opportunities seem more valuable when the supply is 40 limited. As a result, professional persuaders emphasize that “supplies are limited.” Sales 41 end Sunday and movies have limited engagements—diverting attention from whether the item is desirable to the threat of losing the chance to experience it at all. The use of influence, Cialdini says, is ubiquitous. Take the classic appeal by a child of a parent’s sense of consistency: “But you said…” And the parent’s resort to authority: “Because I said so.” In addition, nearly everyone invokes the opinions of like-minded others—for social validation—in vying to win a point. One area in which persuasive tactics are especially controversial is political 44 advertising—particularly negative advertising. Alarmed that attack ads might be alienating voters, some critics have begun calling for stricter limits on political ads. In Washington, legislation pending in Congress would, among other things, 45 force candidates to identify themselves at the end of their commercials. In that way, they might be forced to take responsibility for the ads’ contents and be unable to hide behind campaign committees. “In general, people accept the notion that for the sale of products at least, there 46 are socially accepted norms of advertising,” said Lloyd Morrisett, president of the Markle Foundation, which supports research in communications and information technology. “But when those same techniques are applied to the political process—where 47 we are judging not a product but a person, and where there is ample room for distortion of the record or falsification in some cases—there begins to be more concern,” he said. On an individual level, some psychologists offer tips for self-protection. Pay attention to your emotions, says Pratkanis, an associate professor of  psychology at UC Santa Cruz: “If you start to feel guilty or patriotic, try to figure out why.” In consumer transactions, beware of feelings of inferiority and the sense that you don’t measure up unless you have a certain product. Be on the lookout for automatic responses, Cialdini says. Beware foolish consistency. Check other people’s responses against objective facts. Be skeptical of authority, and look out for unwarranted liking for any “compliance professionals.” Since the publication of his most recent book, Influence: The New Psychology of Modern Persuasion, Cialdini has begun researching a new book on ethical uses of influence in business—addressing, among other things, how to instruct salespeople and other “influence agents” to use persuasion in ways that help, rather than hurt, society. “If influence agents don’t police themselves, society will have to step in to regulate 52 … the way information is presented in commercial and political settings,” Cialdini said. “And that’s a can of worms that I don’t think anybody wants to get into.”   MLA Citation Information: Scott, Janny. “How They Get You to Do That.” Los Angeles Times, 23 Jul. 1992,                https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1992-07-23-mn-4130-story.html

Assignments Ace
Order NOW For A 20% Discount! Coupon code: WELCOME20
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Assignmentsace?

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We offer top-quality and well-researched assignment papers at low prices. We believe in offering the best quality services as we care about your grades, academic performance, and success. Our writers range from masters and Ph.D. graduates to professors. Our panel of expert academic writers does not rest until they are 100% sure your essay will score you an A+ only.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

Our writing company has the best panel of experienced academic and business writers. Our writers have experience of up to 9 years in the writing industry. They will go the extra mile to make sure you are handing in a quality A+ paper. If you are a student searching for any academic help, I advise you to seek for our experts' help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

Our clients frequently ask if they will be liable to free revisions once they place an assignment order with us. However, how many times you ask for revisions, our academic experts will help you. Either way, there is no need to worry as we provide free revisions. We are always after our clients’ satisfaction, and we are very proud to say that all our clients are satisfied with our writing services.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

We are strict when it comes to assignments deadlines. We make sure our writers keep in mind the assignment delivery time. Because we care about clients, we go that extra mile to make sure you do not face those consequences. Whatever the deadline, we promise our clients a prompt delivery.

Affordable Prices

Are our charges too cheap for you to believe? Here at Assignments Ace, we offer quality assignment help at affordable prices. Our prices are substantive to cater to all students. Every time you place your assignment order with us, you are guaranteed a 15% discount.In addition, new clients enjoy a discount of 30% when placing their first order with us.

Customer Support 24/7

Do you have any queries for us? Or do you want to consult with our expert academic writers? Go ahead and contact us. We have 24/7 online friendly customer service. Whatever time of the day or night, we are always available for you. You can chat with us via our online chat services or contact us via our email, [email protected]

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

Our assignments help website is the most internationally sought-after site because we offer a wide range of top-quality services at low prices. Our proud history as an assignment help company stretches back nine years. We do offer Top Quality, Well-Researched Papers and Online classes to help students internationally. We do both of these things at cheap affordable prices by offering up to a 30% discount.


Essay Writing Services

Writing an essay is one of the most tedious tasks that require a lot of concentration and research. Writing an essay takes hours and even up days. We offer the best custom writing service and have your best interests in mind. Most online writing industries do not have qualified writers and are just after your money. Worry less, our writers who have enough experience are ready to give you the help you need. Our writers are carefully selected and undergo some tests to prove their professionalism.


Admission Papers

Are you applying for a college? We help students join their dream college by writing for them strong admission papers that showcases their qualities and personalities. An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. We utilize statements of purpose, personal statements, and personal essays to make a compelling case by stating your leadership activities, education, accomplishments, and professional background.


Editing and Proofreading

We offer an abundance of online proofreading and editing services for our clients. By definition, proofreading is the final surface-level check done on a document. Other academic writing companies offer editing and proofreading as separate services. At our assignment help website, we offer editing and proofreading services as one complete package at affordable cheap prices. Grab your 30% Coupon if you order today!!!


Business Paper

Are you a student pursuing an MBA in business, no need to look any further? We offer the best assignment help as we have the top niche MBA business writers who will give you A+ assignments. Over the years, our experts have helped students accomplish their academic dreams. We have helped thousands of students complete their business assignments with confidence.Grab your 30% Coupon if you order today!!!

escort - adana escort bayan - escort adana - adana escort - escort mersinescort - adana escort bayan - escort adana - adana escort - escort mersinescort - adana escort bayan - escort adana - adana escort - escort mersin