“Political Responsibility and Structural Injustice”RMP 598-612“If we wish to understand and criticize the way that many individuals and groups face too limited and unsavory sets of options, then we need an account of large scale systemic outcomes of the operations of many institutions and practices that constrain some people at the same time that they enable others” (RMP 601).Overview of Young’s essay:This text addresses an aspect of ethics that we have not as directly discussed so far, the issue of responsibility. Part of what it is to be a moral agent is to be someone who is responsible for their actions. This essay argues that the liability model of responsibility (what we typically think of as determining who is casually responsible for a specific identifiable harm and holding that person accountable) cannot adequately address many of the moral situations that we’re faced with.In particular, Young argues that the liability model is inadequate for being able to make sense of or offer any guidance for responding to structural injustice. For that reason, she also makes the case that we need to supplement the liability model with a model of political responsibility. Some background concepts:Structural injustice: “Structural injustices are harms that come to people as a result of structural processes in which many people participate” (RMP 603).Structural processes: “Structure denotes a confluence of institutional rules and interactive routines, mobilization of resources, and physical structures; these constitute the historical givens in relation to which individuals act, and which are relatively stable over time” (RMP 600).“The term structure also applies to wider social outcomes that result from the confluence of many individual actions within given institutional relations, whose collective consequences often do not bear the mark of any person or group’s intention” (RMP 600-601).Why does Young think that the example of Sandy described on pages 598-600 is an example of structural injustice?Young’s guiding question for the remainder of the essay:“How should moral agents—both individual and organizational—think about their responsibilities in relation to social justice” (RMP 603)?What makes thinking about these responsibilities challenging?1) “Although structures are produced by actions, in most cases it is not possible to trace which specific acts of which specific agents cause which specific parts of the structural processes or their outcomes” (RMP 603).2) “Because it is therefore difficult for individuals to see a relationship between their own actions and structural outcomes, we have a tendency to distance ourselves from any responsibility for them” (RMP 603).Because it is so challenging to identify which agents are responsible for which parts of processes that generate structural injustices, those injustices are sometimes obscured, and instead are considered to cases of bad luck.The liability model of responsibility is inadequate though insofar as we find ourselves faced with large scale structural problems like global warming, volatility of financial systems, and Covid-19. “We need a plausible way of conceiving responsibility that connects individual agency to structural processes” (RMP 604).Young’s proposal for conceiving of political responsibility:“By proposing a model of political responsibility, I do not aim to replace or reject the liability model of responsibility. My claim is, rather, that this model of responsibility is either insufficient or inappropriate for assigning responsibility in relation to structural injustice” (RMP 604).“A concept of political responsibility says that we who are a part of these processes should be held responsible for the structural injustice, as members of the collective that produces it, even though we cannot trace the outcome we regret to our own particular actions in a direct causal chain” (RMP 605-606).What is meant by political in this context? –“phenomena and movements of collective action, where people work together to form public works and institutions” (RMP 606).Five features that distinguish the political model of responsibility from a liability model:1) “Unlike a blame model, political responsibility does not seek to mark out and isolate those to be held responsible, thereby distinguishing them from others, who by implication then are not responsible” (RMP 606).2) “A concept of political responsibility in relation to structural injustices on the other hand, evaluates not a harm that deviates from the normal and acceptable, but rather often brings into question precisely the background conditions that ascriptions of blame or fault assume are normal” (RMP 606).3) “Political responsibility differs from a liability model of responsibility in being more forward-looking” (RMP 607).4) “Political responsibility is relatively open with regard to the actions that count as taking up the responsibility” (RMP 607).5) “Political responsibility, finally, is responsibility shared in specific ways….Taking political responsibility means acknowledging that one participates in social processes that have some unjust outcomes, and one participates with many others. Discharging the responsibility entails enjoining collective action with at least some of these others” (RMP 607-608).But doesn’t this lead us to the conclusion that almost everyone is responsible for everything?Young suggests that we should reason along the following parameters when determining for ourselves where to focus in pro-actively aiming to respond to structural injustices:1) Connection – “We are connected by our own actions to processes that cause injustice for others” (RMP 609).2) Power—“The power and influence parameters for reasoning suggest that where individuals and organizations do not have sufficient energy and resources to respond to all structural injustices to which they are connected, and they should focus on those where they have more capacity to influence structural processes” (RMP 611).3) Privilege—“Persons who benefit relatively from structural inequalities have special moral responsibilities to contribute to organized efforts to connect them, not because they are to blame, but because they are able to adapt to changed circumstances without suffering from serious deprivation” (RMP 611-612).4) Interest—“To the extent that those with significant interests in transformation and those who are harmed by structural injustices have more insight and determination in such transformative projects, their voices should have particular influence in organizations and movements that aim to change the structures” (RMP 612).Overall, she aims to provide an alternative way of thinking about moral responsibility that is better equipped to address structural injustices. What do you make of her distinction between liability models of responsibility and political responsibility? Do you think she offers a helpful guide for prioritizing moral responsibilities? Why or why not?
Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers
We offer top-quality and well-researched assignment papers at low prices. We believe in offering the best quality services as we care about your grades, academic performance, and success. Our writers range from masters and Ph.D. graduates to professors. Our panel of expert academic writers does not rest until they are 100% sure your essay will score you an A+ only.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
Our writing company has the best panel of experienced academic and business writers. Our writers have experience of up to 9 years in the writing industry. They will go the extra mile to make sure you are handing in a quality A+ paper. If you are a student searching for any academic help, I advise you to seek for our experts' help.
Free Unlimited Revisions
Our clients frequently ask if they will be liable to free revisions once they place an assignment order with us. However, how many times you ask for revisions, our academic experts will help you. Either way, there is no need to worry as we provide free revisions. We are always after our clients’ satisfaction, and we are very proud to say that all our clients are satisfied with our writing services.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
We are strict when it comes to assignments deadlines. We make sure our writers keep in mind the assignment delivery time. Because we care about clients, we go that extra mile to make sure you do not face those consequences. Whatever the deadline, we promise our clients a prompt delivery.
Are our charges too cheap for you to believe? Here at Assignments Ace, we offer quality assignment help at affordable prices. Our prices are substantive to cater to all students. Every time you place your assignment order with us, you are guaranteed a 15% discount.In addition, new clients enjoy a discount of 30% when placing their first order with us.
Customer Support 24/7
Do you have any queries for us? Or do you want to consult with our expert academic writers? Go ahead and contact us. We have 24/7 online friendly customer service. Whatever time of the day or night, we are always available for you. You can chat with us via our online chat services or contact us via our email, [email protected]
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
Our assignments help website is the most internationally sought-after site because we offer a wide range of top-quality services at low prices. Our proud history as an assignment help company stretches back nine years. We do offer Top Quality, Well-Researched Papers and Online classes to help students internationally. We do both of these things at cheap affordable prices by offering up to a 30% discount.
Writing an essay is one of the most tedious tasks that require a lot of concentration and research. Writing an essay takes hours and even up days. We offer the best custom writing service and have your best interests in mind. Most online writing industries do not have qualified writers and are just after your money. Worry less, our writers who have enough experience are ready to give you the help you need. Our writers are carefully selected and undergo some tests to prove their professionalism.
Are you applying for a college? We help students join their dream college by writing for them strong admission papers that showcases their qualities and personalities. An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. We utilize statements of purpose, personal statements, and personal essays to make a compelling case by stating your leadership activities, education, accomplishments, and professional background.
Editing and Proofreading
We offer an abundance of online proofreading and editing services for our clients. By definition, proofreading is the final surface-level check done on a document. Other academic writing companies offer editing and proofreading as separate services. At our assignment help website, we offer editing and proofreading services as one complete package at affordable cheap prices. Grab your 30% Coupon if you order today!!!
Are you a student pursuing an MBA in business, no need to look any further? We offer the best assignment help as we have the top niche MBA business writers who will give you A+ assignments. Over the years, our experts have helped students accomplish their academic dreams. We have helped thousands of students complete their business assignments with confidence.Grab your 30% Coupon if you order today!!!