Oxidative Phosphorylation and the Electron Transport Chain

Need help with my writing homework on Oxidative Phosphorylation and the Electron Transport Chain. Write a 2500 word paper answering; As the ATP synthase molecule rotates further by 120 degrees the bound ATP occupies the open site or O site from where it is released from the Open site (Yoshida et al, 2001). As the newly formed ATP comes into the mitochondrial matrix there is another transporter located in the inner mitochondrial membrane called the ADP/ATP transporter (Leys and Scrutton, 2004). This transports the ATP formed from the mitochondrial matrix to the cytoplasm and at the same time antiports the transport of ADP into the mitochondrial matrix to become bound to the open site, then loose site and once again to the Tight site where it binds with Pi (carried into the matrix by Pi transporter) and forms ATP again. This is the way the cycle continues by ejecting out ATP into the cytoplasm and at the same time inflowing ADP for the next cycle of ATP synthesis. Since ADP is not present, hence it does not go through this antiporter (protein molecules that help to move two substrates in different directions) to form the new cycle of ATP. Hence when ADP was not there, no antiport occurred however when the ADP was replenished the oxidative phosphorylation returned to normal as ADP entered through the antiporter in exchange of ATP to start the new cycle of ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation(Yoshida et al, 2001).Mostly during the tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-oxidation of fatty acids the pyruvate and malate can become oxidized by NAD+- dependant dehydrogenases because these enzymes are able to transfer electrons from these substrates to the NAD+ owing to their lower redox potentials or the electron transfer potentials than the NAD+ because of the prevalence of the concentration of the molar oxidant/molar reductant ratios of these substrates and of the NAD+ in the mitochondria. Oxidation-reduction comprises of the flow of the electrons between the two redox couples which differs in their affinity for electrons (Calhoun et al, 1994). Hence electrons&nbsp.flow from the reductant ( pyruvate or malate) to the oxidant of another redox couple which is NAD+ in this case. Thus NAD+ gets reduced to NADH2 which further transfers the electrons through ubiquinone, cytochrome C to donate it finally to the oxygen molecule which is the ultimate terminal electron acceptor in the mitochondria, this generates free energy which is utilized to synthesize ATP from ADP and Pi.&nbsp.

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