Assignment 2 Endocrine and Cardiovascular Systems Ms. J.S., a 52 yo white female with two children (16 and 14 yo) presents with history of fatigue, weight gain and muscle weakness over past two years. She initially thought it was caused by work stress and busy family life but has also noticed that she bruises more easily than in the past. She also noted purple lines (stretch marks) that you identified as striae. All of the above symptoms have been getting worse. Blood pressure is 170/110, respirations 12/min and some ankle edema (non-pitting) was noted. The limbs seem relatively thin and the trunk thickened, especially between the upper shoulder blades. Diagnosis was made of Cushing disease/syndrome. How could you differentiate between the two? Elevated levels of cortisol has two effects of plasma leading to increased volume: 1) up-regulation of receptors for aldosterone and 2) an increased effectiveness of ADH (either by centrally increasing ADH release or peripherally by increasing the cellular responsiveness). 1). What effects would these two changes (increased responsiveness to aldosterone and ADH) have on Na+, K+ and water levels in the plasma? (Endocrine Mod 3: MO2, MO3, CO2, CO3, CO4) 2). Where does cortisol secretion occur, and thus is a potential site of an over-secreting tumor? How else could someone develop Cushing syndrome if not by a tumor in that area? (Endocrine Mod 3: MO1, MO2, MO3, CO1, CO2, CO3, CO4, CO5) 3). What is the most common cause of Cushing syndrome in the United States? (Endocrine Mod 3: MO1, MO2, MO3, CO1, CO2, CO3, CO4, CO5) A. Adrenal tumors C. Infections B. Pituitary tumors D. Glucocorticoids prescribed by healthcare worker Mr. M.S., an overweight, 55 yo white male presents to your clinic with chest pains. He has a history of hypertension, alcohol use and does not restrict his diet. He is currently taking nitroglycerin tablets as needed for angina. This pain is worse and is not controlled by nitroglycerin. The pain is radiating down his left arm. The pain in the chest feels like pressure or heartburn. You hear inspiratory rales, consistent with pulmonary edema. His blood pressure is 100/75. He begins to have difficulty breathing, especially when lying down. EKG and serum enzymes suggest a left ventricular wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization reveals a pulmonary wedge pressure of 30 mm Hg (normal, 5 mm Hg) and two-dimensional echocardiography measured an ejection fraction of 0.35 (normal, 0.55). In the Coronary ICU, he was treated with thrombolytic agents (tPA), digitalis (a positive inotropic agent) and furosemide (Lasix, a loop diuretic) 4). What measures above helped you determine that the stroke volume (considering the measures that factor into it) was reduced? (Cardiovascular Alterations Mod 5: MO7, MO9, MO10, MO12, MO17, CO2, CO3, CO4, CO5) 5). Describe the mechanism of how digitalis (AKA Oubain) works at a molecular level to increase contractility (positive inotrope)? Discuss the ion gradients, how they were created/maintained for a cell at resting membrane potential and the effects of this drug that lead to its action (rise in what ion and where) on muscle contraction. (Cardiovascular Structure and Function Mod4: MO2, MO6, MO7, MO9, MO11, CO1, CO2, CO3) 6). Statins are commonly used to treat cardiovascular disease. Describe their effect and the mechanism of how that effect is brought about. Explain if men and women with similar cholesterol profiles are at similar risk for cardiovascular disease (i.e. are they equally predictive of cardiovascular risk for men and women). Supply a link to an article that supports your assertion and in a sentence or two, describe the take home point(s) of the article (Cardiovascular Structure and Function Mod 5: MO1, MO5, MO7, MO8, MO9 CO1, CO2, CO3) 7). Supply one link/web address/citation to an article (different from above article) that describes differences in either gender or race in the treatment or assessment of risk for cardiovascular disease and a statement of how that information will affect your assessment/treatment of patients in practice.
Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers
We offer top-quality and well-researched assignment papers at low prices. We believe in offering the best quality services as we care about your grades, academic performance, and success. Our writers range from masters and Ph.D. graduates to professors. Our panel of expert academic writers does not rest until they are 100% sure your essay will score you an A+ only.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
Our writing company has the best panel of experienced academic and business writers. Our writers have experience of up to 9 years in the writing industry. They will go the extra mile to make sure you are handing in a quality A+ paper. If you are a student searching for any academic help, I advise you to seek for our experts' help.
Free Unlimited Revisions
Our clients frequently ask if they will be liable to free revisions once they place an assignment order with us. However, how many times you ask for revisions, our academic experts will help you. Either way, there is no need to worry as we provide free revisions. We are always after our clients’ satisfaction, and we are very proud to say that all our clients are satisfied with our writing services.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
We are strict when it comes to assignments deadlines. We make sure our writers keep in mind the assignment delivery time. Because we care about clients, we go that extra mile to make sure you do not face those consequences. Whatever the deadline, we promise our clients a prompt delivery.
Are our charges too cheap for you to believe? Here at Assignments Ace, we offer quality assignment help at affordable prices. Our prices are substantive to cater to all students. Every time you place your assignment order with us, you are guaranteed a 15% discount.In addition, new clients enjoy a discount of 30% when placing their first order with us.
Customer Support 24/7
Do you have any queries for us? Or do you want to consult with our expert academic writers? Go ahead and contact us. We have 24/7 online friendly customer service. Whatever time of the day or night, we are always available for you. You can chat with us via our online chat services or contact us via our email, [email protected]
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
Our assignments help website is the most internationally sought-after site because we offer a wide range of top-quality services at low prices. Our proud history as an assignment help company stretches back nine years. We do offer Top Quality, Well-Researched Papers and Online classes to help students internationally. We do both of these things at cheap affordable prices by offering up to a 30% discount.
Writing an essay is one of the most tedious tasks that require a lot of concentration and research. Writing an essay takes hours and even up days. We offer the best custom writing service and have your best interests in mind. Most online writing industries do not have qualified writers and are just after your money. Worry less, our writers who have enough experience are ready to give you the help you need. Our writers are carefully selected and undergo some tests to prove their professionalism.
Are you applying for a college? We help students join their dream college by writing for them strong admission papers that showcases their qualities and personalities. An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. We utilize statements of purpose, personal statements, and personal essays to make a compelling case by stating your leadership activities, education, accomplishments, and professional background.
Editing and Proofreading
We offer an abundance of online proofreading and editing services for our clients. By definition, proofreading is the final surface-level check done on a document. Other academic writing companies offer editing and proofreading as separate services. At our assignment help website, we offer editing and proofreading services as one complete package at affordable cheap prices. Grab your 30% Coupon if you order today!!!
Are you a student pursuing an MBA in business, no need to look any further? We offer the best assignment help as we have the top niche MBA business writers who will give you A+ assignments. Over the years, our experts have helped students accomplish their academic dreams. We have helped thousands of students complete their business assignments with confidence.Grab your 30% Coupon if you order today!!!